These men gave all – no fear nor any stain – That glorious and pure their country be. Blest be their sleep; clear light upon them rain, Who rest in peace to all eternity. Humphrey Arden (2nd Lieut. R.G.A)
Robert Pringle (Lieut. Queen’s Royal West Surrey Reg.)
Son of Mr & Mrs RB Pringle of Ardmore, Guildford, Surrey. Went from the OPS via St Cuthbert’s, Malvern to Winchester. Entered Army in 1911.
Died of his wounds in the battle of the Aisne, aged 28.
Percy Campbell (2nd Lieut. Wiltshire Reg.)
Son of Mr & Mrs JE Campbell of Rawlinson Road, Oxford. Scholarship to Clifton College (1908) and won Senior Mathematical Scholarship at Hertford College, Oxford (1912).
Killed by shellfire at Ypres, aged 20.
Regie Fletcher (2nd Lieut. RFA)
Son of Mr & Mrs CRL Fletcher of Norham End, Oxford. Scholarship to Eton (1905). Balliol College, Oxford (1910).
Killed by shellfire at Ypres, aged 22.
Alan Leggett (2nd Lieut. North Staffs Reg.)
Son of Col & Mrs Leggett of Hythe, Kent. Tonbridge (1907) and Sandhurst (1911).
Killed by shellfire, whilst asleep in his trench near Armentieres, aged 21.
Arthur Percival (Lieut-Col, Northumberland Fusiliers).
Son of Dr & Mrs John Percival. Marlborough & Rugby Schools. Sandhurst (1889).
Killed by shellfire at Hooge Château (Ypres), aged 43.
Roderick Haigh (Lieut. Queen’s Royal West Surrey Reg.)
Son of the late Mr & Mrs Haigh. Exhibition to Winchester. Corpus Christi College, Oxford (1907). University nominated Commission (1911).
Shot in a charge on Hill 60 (Ypres), aged 26.
George Fletcher (2nd Lieut. Royal Welch Fusiliers).
Son of Mr & Mrs CRL Fletcher of Norham End, Oxford. Scholarship to Eton (1900). Balliol College, Oxford (1907). Subsequently taught at Schleswig Gymnasium (1910-11), Shrewsbury School (1911-13) and Eton College (1913-14).
Shot by a sniper in the trenches near Bois Grenier, aged 27.
Ronald Poulton Palmer (Lieut. Royal Berkshire Regiment).
Son of Professor & Mrs EB Poulton of Wykeham House, Banbury Rd., Oxford. Entered Rugby (1903). Exhibition at Balliol College, Oxford (1907). England Rugby International (1909-14) and captain (1913-14).
Shot by random night-time rifle fire at Ploegstreert trenches, nr. Ypres, aged 25.
Basil Parker (Captain. Hampshire Regiment).
Son of Mr & Mrs G Parker of Pinecliff Avenue, West Southbourne in Sussex. Educated at Bedford Grammar School before joining the Army (1889).
Shot in a charge on enemy trenches near Krithia, Gallipoli, aged 37.
Philip Chapman (Private. Hampshire Regiment)
Son of Dr & Mrs Chapman of Beachwood, Hereford. Went on to Clifton College before studying Music.
Died in Malta of wounds suffered in Gallipoli, aged 21.
Leslie Eastwood (2nd Lieut., King’s Own Royal Lancaster Regiment)
Son of Mr & Mrs Eastwood of Hoylake, Cheshire. Educated at King William’s College, Isle of Man & Worcester College Oxford. From 1907-14 he was a master at the OPS.
Served in Gallipoli, where he was wounded. Died of dysentery in Alexandria, aged 29.
Thomas Higginson (Captain, Shropshire Light Infantry)
Son of Mr & Mrs GF Higginson of Tenbury, Worcestershire. Educated at Ludlow Grammar School, winning an exhibition to Balliol College Oxford. He joined the staff of the OPS in 1911.
Killed in an accident near Laventie, when his dug-out caved in, aged 26.
Robert Rawlinson (2nd Lieut., Border Regiment)
Only son of Mr & Mrs JB Rawlinson of Graythwaite Old Hall, North Lancs and 35 Park Lane, London. After leaving Blundells, he was training as a chartered accountant when broke out.
Killed in an attack on the opening day of the Battle of Loos, aged 21.
Alasdair Macdonell (2nd Lieut., Cameron Highlanders)
Only son of Professor & Mrs Macdonell of Chadlington Road, Oxford. He was elected to a scholarship at Repton and then went up to Balliol College, Oxford. At the start of the war he joined the Ox & Bucks Light Infantry before going to Sandhurst and then obtained a commission in the 1st Cameron Highlanders.
Killed leading a bombing party at Hulluch in the battle at Loos, aged 21.
Thomas Whittingham (Lieut., Leicestershire Regiment)
The eldest son of the Rev & Mrs WG Whittingham of Glaston Rectory, Uppingham. He won an exhibition to Felsted School and joined the Leicestershire Territorials in 1913.
Killed leading an attack on the Hohenzollern Redoubt in the battle at Loos, aged 22.
Raymond Venis (2nd Lieut., IARO, 48th Pioneers)
The son of the late Dr. Arthur Venis, Raymond went on to Repton School and the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. Served briefly in the South Staffs Regiment and joined the IARO in 1914.
Died of his wounds in the battle of Ctesiphon in the Mesopotamian campaign, aged 28.
Nathaniel Tyrwhitt (Major, Queen’s Westminster Rifles)
The eldest son of Commander & Mrs Tyrwhitt of St Leonard’s-on-sea in Sussex. He served in the South African War, receiving the medal with three clasps. Fought at the battle at Hooge, for which he was Mentioned in Despatches.
Killed by shellfire at Ypres, aged 44.
Robert French (Captain, 3rd Royal Welch Fusiliers)
The elder son of Mr & Mrs John Mason French of Boscombe. He won a scholarship to Blundell’s School and joined the army soon after leaving school in 1911.
Died of an infection, following wounds suffered on the first day of the battle at Loos, aged 22.
Nigel Madan (Lieut., 8th King’s Own Royal Lancaster Regiment)
Son of Mr & Mrs Falconer Madan of 94 Banbury Road, Oxford. After only a year at the OPS, he spent time at St. Cuthbert’s in Malvern before returning to Summer Fields, Oxford. Won a King’s scholarship to Eton and a Classical scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford. He worked briefly for a shipping firm before joining up at the start of the war.
Killed in an attack on the Bluff at Ypres, aged 27.
Charlie Childe (Capt., Gloucestershire Regiment)
Son of the late Lieut-Col LF Childe and Mrs Childe of 7 Chadlington Road, Oxford. He won the 2nd Scholarship to Clifton College. He was reading Medicine at Pembroke College Cambridge when war broke out. He joined the Glosters and was in charge of a Lewis Gun Detachment.
Killed by a stray bullet at Merville, aged 21.
Harold Leefe Robinson (2nd Lieut., 101st Grenadiers, Indian Army)
Second son of Mr & Mrs Horace Robinson of Kaima Betta, South Coorg in India. Although he was born in Bournemouth, he spent most of his life in India. Joined the Indian Army Reserve in 1914 and was attached to the Mahratta Light Infantry.
Died of wounds received near Kut, aged 22.
William Esson (Major, RMLI)
The only surviving son of Professor William Esson & the late Mrs Esson of 13 Bradmore Road, Oxford. From Rugby William joined the Royal Naval College, Greenwich in 1893.
Killed when his ship, HMS Russell struck a mine, aged 42.
Lance Freyberg (Lieut-Cdr, RN)
The younger son of Major & Mrs Herbert Freyberg of 8 Grays Inn Square in London. Lance joined the Navy Class at Marlborough before getting his Cadetship in HMS Britannia in 1901. He served in the Channel Squadron and Mediterranean Fleet on the battleships Mars, Caesar, Duncan and Vengeance.
Killed when his ship, HMS Russell struck a mine, aged 31.
Raymond Drew (Sergeant, Royal Fusiliers)
Son of the late Mr Frederic Drew & Mrs Drew of 19 Ferndon Road, Oxford. Won a Classical Scholarship to Rossall School before studying at Pembroke College, Oxford.
He returned from the Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation to join the 22nd (Kensington) Battalion.
Killed in action near the Vimy Ridge, aged 32.
Charles Fisher (Lieut. RN)
Son of the late Mr Herbert and Mrs Fisher.
Won the top scholarship to Westminster School (1889). In 1896 he got a First Westminster Studentship at Christ Church Oxford, where he became a don and Senior Censor.
In 1914 he became an Orderly & Interpreter with Motor Ambulance No. 4 (BEF), before transferring to the RNVR, where he obtained the rank of Lieutenant.
Killed on board HMS Invincible at the Battle of Jutland, aged 38
Edmund Deane (Private, Canadian Infantry).
The son of Rev & Mrs Deane of Willoughby, Rugby. After leaving St. Edward’s School Oxford, he emigrated to Canada to farm.
Killed near Ypres, aged 38.
George Wright (2nd Lieut. Somerset Light Infantry)
Son of Mr & Mrs HE Wright of 57 Cleveland Square, Hyde Park, London. Passed into Eton College (1906) and went up to Balliol College Oxford (1912). Joined up on the outbreak of war and served in France. Awarded the MC in November 1915 for “conspicuous gallantry.”
Killed by random shellfire in Ypres, aged 23.
Geoffrey Clarke (2nd Lieut. Rifle Brigade)
The younger son of the late Rev AE Clarke & Mrs Clarke of Camberley. Won the 3rd Scholarship to Winchester College and a Scholarship to New College Oxford. Taught at the Royal Naval College, Osborne before the War.
Killed in the attack on the first day of the Battle of the Somme, aged 33.
John Ruttledge (Capt. Prince of Wales’s Own West Yorks Regiment)
Only son of Lt. Col & Mrs A Ruttledge of Castleconnell, Co. Limerick. From Clifton College he entered Sandhurst. He won the MC at Neuve Chapelle in 1914 and was twice mentioned in despatches.
Killed by a shell in the attack on the first day of the Battle of the Somme, aged 21.
Christopher Counsell (Lieut. Hampshire Regiment)
Son of Dr & Mrs Counsell of 37 Broad St., Oxford. Won a Scholarship to Lancing College before going up to Trinity College Oxford, where he got a first class degree in Law. In 1914 he joined up as a Private in a Public School Battalion. He then gained a commission in the Hampshire Regiment.
Died of his wounds in the Battle of the Somme, aged 26.
Robert Gibson (Lieut. South Staffs Regiment, attached to Bedfordshires)
Fifth son of Rev & Mrs TW Gibson of Cranham Rectory, Upminster. Won top scholarship to Winchester and then New College, Oxford. Joined the Artists’ Rifles as a private (1914); became a 2nd Lieut. with South Staffs before being transferred in 1915 to the Bedfordshire Regiment. Mentioned in Despatches (1916).
Killed in an attack on Trones Wood (Battle of the Somme), aged 21.
David Westcott Brown (Capt. Leicestershire Regiment)
Son of the Rev. & Mrs GG Brown of St. Mary’s Rectory, Bedford. Awarded the 3rd Scholarship to Marlborough College. He was reading for Greats at Balliol College Oxford when war broke out.
Killed in an attack in the Battle of the Somme, aged 23.
Paddy Burton (Temporary Capt. 4th Bedfordshires)
Eldest son of Mr & Mrs Claude Burton of Berkhamsted, Herts. Won top scholarship to Repton and an exhibition to Wadham College, Oxford.
Killed in the capture of Longueval & Delville Wood (Battle of the Somme), aged 23.
Eric Leggett (Major, Royal Artillery)
The second son of Col. & Mrs FO Leggett of High Grange, Hythe, Kent. Won an exhibition at Wellington College and then joined the army, via Woolwich. Mentioned in despatches three times in 1914-15 and received the DSO in Flanders (1915)
Died of scarlet fever in St. Omer Hospital, aged 35.
Frank Benham (Captain, RFA)
Son of the late Mr FR and Mrs Benham of Dean’s Hill, Stafford. Went to Marlborough College and then joined the Army by way of Woolwich. In 1914 went out to France with BEF and fought through the Mons retreat and at Le Cateau.
Died of wounds suffered in the Battle of the Somme in Queen Alexandra’s Hospital in London, aged 30.
Oswald Blencowe (2nd Lieut. Ox & Bucks Light Infantry)
Youngest son of Rev & Mrs Charles Blencowe of Marston St. Lawrence, Banbury. After attending St Edward’s School, Oxford, he became a schoolmaster at a Preparatory School. He joined the Public Schools Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers on the outbreak of war, serving as a sergeant, before gaining a commission with the Ox & Bucks Light Infantry.
Killed by a shell at Guedecourt on the Somme, aged 26.
John Raikes (2nd Lieut. Essex Regiment)
The only son of Rev & Mrs T.D. Raikes of Whichford Rectory in Warwickshire. Won a scholarship to Radley College and a Mathematical Exhibition to Corpus Christi, Oxford. Joined the 1st Batttalion UPS Royal Fusiliers as a Private before gaining a commission with the Essex Regiment.
Killed by a shell near Flers in the Somme battle, aged 20.
Wallace Hardman (2nd Lieut. 13th Manchester Regiment)
Eldest son of Mr & Mrs James Hardman of Grove View, Delph, near Oldham. Attended Malvern College and then received his commission in March 1915.
Killed in action near Kut, aged 19.
Nevile West (Capt. Royal Berkshire Regiment)
Second son of Lieut.-Col. & Mrs CJ West of Hermitage, Newbury, Berks. From Marlborough he went to United Services College Windsor and then Sandhurst. Awarded the MC for ‘conspicuous gallantry’ in May 1915 and was Mentioned in Despatches in July 1916.
Killed by shellfire at Courcellette, aged 22.
Jean Clunet (Dr. French Army)
Son of Mr & Mrs Edouard Clunet of Place Boieldieu, Paris. Attended Lycée Louis-le-Grand and then the Université de Paris. In 1914 he became a military surgeon with the French Army on the Marne, winning the Croix de Guerre, and at Gallipoli.
Died on active service of typhus fever in Romania, aged 39.
John Pratt (Lieut. Yorkshire Regiment)
Younger son of Mr & Mrs Charles Pratt of Marley House, Haslemere. From Blundell’s School he gained a commission aged 17 with the 10th Battalion of the Yorkshire Regiment.
Killed by a sniper near Arras, aged 19.
Morice Thompson (Lieut. Shropshire Light Infantry & MGC)
Son of Rev & Mrs WF Thompson of Fyfield, Oxon. From St. Edward’s Oxford, he went on to study Chemistry at St. John’s College, Oxford. In 1914 he joined the 8th Royal Berks, before transferring to the 8th Shrops. LI in 1915.
Killed by machine-gun fire at Monchy-le-Preux during the battle of Arras, aged 25.
Hunter Herbertson (Lieut. KRRC)
Son of the late Professor & Mrs Herbertson. Winner of an Exhibition to Magdalen College School, he was at Balliol College, Oxford when war broke out.
Killed on night patrol during the battle at Arras, aged 22.
Humphrey Arden (2nd Lieut. RGA)
Only son of Rev & Mrs WHP Arden of Whiteparish, Salisbury. Won a scholarship to Radley College followed by an Exhibition to Queen’s College Cambridge. He was due to train for Holy Orders when war broke out and he joined the RGA. Served in France on the Somme.
Died of his wounds at Messines, aged 25.
William Sheepshanks (2nd Lieut. KRRC)
Son of the late Bishop of Norwich & Mrs Sheepshanks of 15 Bracondale, Norwich. Scholarship to Winchester College and Scholar of New College Oxford. Worked in the Home Office before joining the KRRC in 1914.
Died of wounds from shell-fire, aged 26.
Alan Jenks (Major, RE)
The eldest son of Mr Edward Jenks (Principal of the Law Society) & the late Mrs Jenks. From Blundell’s School he went to London University, gaining a First-Class degree in Engineering. In 1914 he joined the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry, winning the MC in 1915. Transferred to Royal Engineers, and was given command of the 152nd Field Company.
Killed by a sniper near Kemmel Hill on the opening day of the battle at Ypres, aged 26.
William Wells-Cole (2nd Lieut. Lincolnshires)
The elder son of the late Mr & Mrs WF Wells-Cole Cole of Dunstal, Lincs. From Repton College he passed into Sandhurst and in 1916 got a commission in the Lincs Regiment.
Killed in an attack nr. Wytschaete on the first day of the battle at Ypres.
Alan (Tom) Cam (2nd Lieut. Royal Engineers)
The youngest son of the Rev & Mrs WH Cam of Paulers Pury Rectory, Towcester. Won a scholarship to Dover College and then studied Electrical Engineering at the Central Technical College. Enlisted in the Engineering Company organized by Mr Winston Churchill to be attached to the Royal Naval Division. He served in the Gallipoli campaign before being invalided home. In December 1916 he was given a commission in the Royal Engineers.
Killed by machine-gun fire on the Ypres-Menin Road, aged 22.
George Falkiner (2nd. Lieut. Royal Dublin Fusiliers)
The second son of the late HB Falkiner Esq and Mrs Falkiner of Terenure Road, Dublin. He won a scholarship to Blundell’s School and entered Sandhurst in February 1916 with a prize cadetship.
Killed leading an attack at Fregenberg, near Ypres, aged 19.
Hamilton Jefferson (2nd. Lieut. OBLI)
The third son of Mr & Mrs GD Jefferson of 35, Bryanston Street, London. Joined St Bees School, which he left aged 16 in 1914 to join the firm of Lionel Woodhouse & Co in Marsala, Sicily. He returned the following year to join up, receiving his commission in September 1915.
Killed in an attack at Langemarck, aged 19.
William Scott (Lieut. OBLI)
Only son of Mrs Scott of the late Mr GR Scott, Fellow and Tutor of Merton College, Oxford. From Rugby School he went to McGill University in Montreal to study Civil Engineering. Returning in 1915, he joined the Ox & Bucks Light Infantry. He was twice wounded in 1916.
Killed in an attack near St Julien in the battle at Ypres, aged 25.
Revere Osler (2nd Lieut. RFA)
Only son of Sir William (Regius Professor of Medicine) & Lady Osler of 13 Norham Gardens, Oxford. He went on to Winchester and entered Christ Church Oxford, when the war began and he joined up.
Died of his wounds on Pilkem Ridge, aged 21.
Robert Pratt (Sergeant, Military Labour Bureau)
Only son of Mr & Mrs Pratt of Poolfield Avenue, Newcastle, Staffs (and late of St. Margaret’s Rd, Oxford). Went on to Wellingborough College and then joined the National Bank of South Africa. Joined the Van de Venter’s Scouts before being drafted in to the Military Labour Bureau.
Died of spotted fever at Iringa, aged 25.
Hugh Sidgwick (Capt. RGA)
The older son of Mr Arthur Sidgwick, Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, and Mrs Sidgwick of 64 Woodstock Road, Oxford. Won the top scholarship to Winchester College and was elected Scholar of Balliol College Oxford. In 1906 he joined the Education Office, leaving them to join the RGA in 1916.
Killed by shellfire near Ypres, aged 34.
Gustavus Hume-Gore (Lieut. Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders)
Second son of the late Captain GRV Hume-Gore and Mrs Hume-Gore of Derryensken, Ireland (late of Bardwell Road, Oxford). Straight from Marlborough College he joined the Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders before being attached to the King’s African Rifles at the end of 1916.
Killed in action at the Battle of Nakadi River, aged 20.
Gifford Turrell (2nd Lieut. Ox & Bucks Light Infantry)
Only child of Dr & Mrs WJ Turrell of Cherwell Lodge, Oxford. From Sherborne School he went up to Queen’s College Oxford in 1915.
Died of wounds suffered near Ypres on 22/8/17 in St Thomas’ Hospital London, aged 19.
Locke Kendall (Lieut. Norfolks & MGC)
Second son of Rev & Mrs JF Kendall of the Vicarage, Richmond, Surrey. From Marlborough College he went to Caius College Cambridge. Joined the Norfolks in 1914 and fought at the Battle of Loos. Appointed to the MGC (Cavalry) in 1916.
Died of wounds at Tartah, near Jerusalem, aged 27
Frank Spurling (Capt. Rifle Brigade)
The fourth and youngest son of the late Rev Canon & Mrs FW Spurling of Keble College and Chester. From Rossall School he went out to South Africa and became an ostrich farmer. Returned to England in 1915 and joined the Rifle Brigade. He was seriously wounded twice, at Ypres and Havrincourt Wood.
Died of his wounds, near Poperinghe, aged 32.
Martin Collier (Lieut. RN)
Younger son of Lieut.-Col Collier (RAMNC) and Mrs Collier of St. Mary’s Entry, Oxford. Entered RNC Dartmouth by way of RNC Osborne. Served on HMS Implacable, HMS Defence and HMS Britannia before moving to submarines.
Lost at sea, aged 25.
Cyril Emmett (Flight Sub-Lieut. RNAS)
Only son of Dr & Mrs Emmett of Winton, North End, Portsmouth. Leaving Repton School in 1917, he joined the RNAS and trained as a pilot.
Killed in a flying accident near Dunkirk, aged 19.
Henry Addis (Lieut. Royal Dublin Fusiliers)
The only son of the late Rev & Mrs Addis of 5 Lebanon Park, Twickenham. From Westminster School he joined the Royal Dublin Fusiliers in 1915. He was wounded in the Dublin riots in May 1916.
Killed in the Spring Offensive at Sandbag Alley, Lempire, aged 20.
Edmund Fisher (2nd Lieut. RFA)
The third son of the late Mr Herbert Fisher & Mrs Fisher. He was the brother of the late Charles Fisher, Rt. Hon. HAL Fisher & Capt. WW Fisher. After attending Haileybury College he became an architect. Earlier in the war he worked as a medical orderly, before joining the RFA. He crossed over to France in June 1917 and took part in the battles at Ypres & Cambrai.
Died of illness contracted at the Front, aged 46.
Alan Haig-Brown (Lieut.-Col. Middlesex)
The younger son of the late Canon Haig-Brown (Headmaster of Charterhouse School) and Mrs Haig-Brown of 19 Tite Street, Chelsea.
Won the 8th scholarship to Charterhouse and went on to Pembroke College, Cambridge. Played football for Cambridge and Tottenham Hotspur and was the author of several books. Commanded the Lancing College OTC. Assisted with the training of 12 battalions of the New Army before joining his regiment. Twice wounded. Awarded the DSO in 1917.
Killed in action at Bienvilliers, aged 40.
George Thuillier (Capt. Devons)
Younger son of Major-General HF Thuillier CB CMG and Mrs Thuillier of Gerrards Cross, Bucks. From Dover College he went to Sandhurst, gaining his commission in June 1916. He took part in the Somme battle and in January 1918 won the MC.
Killed in action at St. Christ on the Somme, aged 21.
Ronald Stonehouse (Lieut. RAF)
Younger son of Sir Edmund & Lady Stonehouse of Wakefield. From OPS he went to Sedbergh School. Took a commission in the ASC before joining the RFC, training in aerial gunnery and as an observer.
Killed by an aerial bomb, aged 28.
St. John Backhouse (Lieut. RAF)
Third son of the late Mr Salmon-Backhouse of Leeds & Mrs Backhouse of 8 Clifton Road, London.
On leaving King’s College School, Wimbledon, he was apprenticed to an Inventor’s Engineer in London. Returned from the Argentine at the outbreak of was to serve as a Private in the Royal Fusiliers. Gaining a commission in the East Lancashire Regiment, he then joined the Army Cyclist Corps and went to Salonika. In 1917 he joined the RFC.
Killed in an aerial action in Salonika, aged 29.
Greville Thomas (Lieut. Gurkha Rifles)
Eldest son of Rev & Mrs Llewelyn Thomas of Newland Vicarage, Hull.
Won an Open Scholarship to Rossall School and then trained at Quetta (India) in 1915, passing out first with the Sword of Honour. Served in India and Palestine.
Killed by machine-gun fire at El Kefr, near Ramleh, aged 21.
M I S S I N G I N A C T I O N
Edmund Gay (Capt. Norfolk Regiment)
The only son of the late Mr Gay and Mrs Gay of Oxford (and Aldborough Hall, Norfolk). From Winchester College he went to New College Oxford. A tea planter in Ceylon (1903-8) before returning to farm in Norfolk.
Went missing along with 250 1/5th Norfolks in an attack on Teke Tepe (Gallipoli campaign).
John Dowson (Capt. Royal Berkshire Regiment)
Elder son of Mr & Mrs HM Dowson of Holiday House, 12 Chadlington Road, Oxford. On leaving Rugby School, he went straight into the army on the outbreak of war. He was three times wounded before returning to the front in January 1917.
Went missing in a night-time retreat during the battle at Arras.